Meanwhile after the peace of Crespy (September 1544) the situation had so shaped itself that Emperor Charles V (1519–56) began to put down Protestantism by force. In Germany the campaign began in the west where Protestant movements had been at work in the archbishopric of Cologne since 1542. According to Falkowski (2002) "Sublimus Dei" had the effect of revoking the bull of Alexander VI "Inter Caetera" but still leaving the colonizers the duty of converting the native people.
He convened the Council of Trent in 1545. Paul III (29 February 1468 – 10 November 1549) born Alessandro Farnese was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1534 to his death in 1549.